Sustain America’s Greatness – Reject American Exceptionalism

When I was in high school, I confronted my European History teacher with a statement made in a book by former US Secretary of State Zbigniew Brzezinski that at the beginning of 19th century China produced as much steel as did England. My teacher ridiculed the statement, claiming that nobody had anything close to England’s industrial capacity until late 19th century. I later found out through independent research that Brzezinski’s statement was true, and that in early 19th century England and China each produced 30% of the world’s steel. But even to this day many people in the West, including Harvard-educated historians such as my teacher, know nothing of this fact.

There are candidates in politics now who want to turn American educational system to Eurocentrism and American exceptionalism. And the answer to all these people is that in doing what they do they are in weighing against the very things that the Western Civilization, and America in particular, the leader of the world in the first place. The Western Civilization (and United States in particular) achieved its greatness through science; technology; ingenuity; innovation; knowledge; democracy; freedom of information; and fact. And in militating against such things the right-wing candidates are undermining the very things that made their country great in the first place.

In 18th century, a Chinese emperor rejected England’s offer of trade with China, saying that his “celestial empire” already had everything, and that there was nothing that the pathetic island of England could offer it. Pursuant this decision China entered a period of decline and stagnation as the Western civilization blossomed through scientific and technological innovation. This disastrous decision led China to fall steeply behind – a catastrophic decline from which China is only now beginning to recover.

And in choosing to ignore reality and embrace a factually wrong view of history and encourage a crabby, arrogant attitude on the part of American people, the right-wing politicians are at risk of putting America in the same position as the Chinese emperor had placed his “celestial empire.”

It does not help that there are ideologies out there that claim that there is no such thing as real innovation or originality, or that anyone who has any idea other than that of the people around him is a narcissist or a sociopath. It does not help that there are ideologies out there that claim that only good comes from Christ and that everything else is the work of the Devil. The world will not stop practicing intelligence and innovation, even if America does. And that will unquestionably lead America to decline in relation to the rest of the world for as long as its people practice such attitudes.

To actually be an American patriot and benefit the country in a meaningful way one must know what made it great in the first place. Ingenuity, innovation, knowledge, fact, and freedom of information, are at the root of everything, material and political, that America has. Other countries had Jesus; other countries had armies; other countries had capitalism; other countries had people willing to die for them or to work hard or to pledge allegiance to the flag. America is not exceptional in this regard. It is exceptional in its embrace of ingenuity and innovation, and it is to this that are owed America’s greatest accomplishments.

Those who want to embrace a factually wrong view of history, like those who want to misplace credit for America’s greatness, claiming it to be based on “traditional values” that existed in Europe and Middle East and in only a slightly different form in China and India long before they existed in America, are militating against the very things that are responsible for America’s accomplishments. And for America to remain an exceptional country, it must reject the factually wrong Eurocentrism and the equally wrong American exceptionalism, along with the other lies of the American Right that are contributing to this error.

To the people who would from this expect me to be a Marxist, my response is that the Marxist view of history is as wrong as the right-wing view of history. Besides describing China and India as feudalist and Native Americans as stone-age tribes, Marx offered no real informed insight into any of these societies. His linear conception of history is wrong in light of basic human reality as much as it is wrong in light of historical fact. At the time that Europe was in the Dark Ages, China had half the world’s GDP; India and Middle East had great architecture and advanced mathematics; and Africa had a city of a million people. While the Western Civilization progressed as a result of Renaissance and then later as a result of European Enlightenment and American Revolution, all of these civilizations declined and are only now getting back on their feet. There is no such thing as linear history, and there is no such thing as historical inevitability. Human choice makes it possible at any time to change history of any place in any direction. And in all cases, these choices bear logically predictable results.

Rejecting Eurocentrism and American exceptionalism will enhance and sustain America’s greatness. It will take away from people the intellectual crutches that they are using to sustain their pride as citizens of a great country while they are doing nothing great for their country themselves. It will give people incentive to actually add to their country’s greatness, instead of relying on the work of their ancestors to maintain their national pride while themselves doing nothing that merits pride. And that will do much to result in America remaining a great country instead of following 18th century China’s path to failure and decline.

Short Term Profits versus Sustainable Long Term Gains

It’s a market obsessed with making short-term returns. As a result, the past decade of what is perceived as ‘regeneration’ has been dominated by speculative investor bulk-buying, killing off any chance of creating vibrant communities resulting in a legacy of absentee owners, and an oversupply of one and two bedroom identikit apartments.

You can’t blame the house builders, developers or agents; after all, they represent the private sector which has to answer to shareholders who want to maximise annualised profit.
But what about the next 20, 50 or 100 years? Is such a short-term approach really the best financial model? Does it create vibrant and healthy communities and great urban places? The answer to these questions has to be no.

Until we adopt a long-term approach to creating communities and vibrant places rather than an obsession with buildings and short-term profit, the property market will not deliver sustainable city living in line with the European approach. I believe the answer lies with the larger financial institutions and the public sector. Both can afford to think long-term, as they don’t answer to private shareholders.

Currently, property only represents a small percentage of pension funds’ total investment. Traditionally, the financial institutions have avoided more exposure to property perceiving it to be volatile and management intensive. However, the city’s financial institutions are now starting to look at property as a long-term alternative for the creation of excellent returns. Morley, one of Europe’s largest property fund managers, set up The Igloo Regeneration Fund in 2002. This is the UK’s first urban regeneration fund investing for a commercial return in mixed use, environmentally sustainable, well-designed regeneration projects on the edge of the top 20 cities in the UK. The fund is managed by Morley on behalf of Norwich Union without pressure from shareholders.

The public sector is also starting to recognise that it can take a long-term approach to value creation and the generation of public benefit through quangos like Communities England (English Partnerships and the Housing Corporation) and British Waterways. For example, British Waterways established ISIS Waterside Regeneration at the 2002 Urban Summit held in Birmingham in order to use its assets to create long-term returns and sustainable new waterside destinations. ISIS is now revitalising more than 170 acres of land in seven towns and cities across the UK, designed to attract a wide range of occupiers, including families. Icknield Port Loop, one of the most significant regeneration opportunities this decade is one of these sites.

When the public sector take this long term approach, they often are faced with a dilemma given the need to cover short term costs, for example British Waterways are responsible for a 200 year old system that constantly needs to be maintained and suffers from years of under-investment. The current costs are more than British Waterways receive. British Waterways require consistent funding to be able to maintain the waterways for public benefit and as a catalyst for regeneration without having to sell off the family silver. Over the past weeks the national news has reported that it may be privatised; this would be a huge shame. British Waterways has the opportunity to continue to act as a force for good in regeneration, rather than being forced to dance to the tune of the shareholder.
We need to encourage the government and financial institutions to get behind the property market and set up more of these funds. We only need to look to northern Europe for an example of how this can work very successfully.

In the UK, young people have a stark choice – 25 year mortgages are likely to be replaced by much longer terms and if the idea of creating huge debts for others to inherit is not attractive they are forced to rent average quality and poorly designed apartments from private, relatively unregulated landlord. If pension funds invest in well designed apartments built as part of a thriving community and well managed by responsible investors such as Morley, places with long-term value can be created, which occupants can then buy-in to as part of their pensions.

This will be a challenge, as we need to overcome the stigma of renting on a long-term basis. In addition, if pension funds do invest in developers like ISIS, which puts sustainability at the heart of its approach, there is an opportunity for large numbers to acknowledge and address the challenge of climate change. If there were more communities living in residential schemes like ISIS ones which have sustainability built-in to the very fabric of the development, then a critical mass could develop into combating the effects of climate change.

An excellent case study of how the public sector can work with long-term funds, as I have described, is represented at Icknield Port Loop. Birmingham City Council, Advantage West Midlands and ISIS together with other key stakeholders are bringing forward plans to put this long-term approach to community and value creation into practice. It can’t come soon enough.

Two Pairs Of Eyes – West Africa – Perception Of The New Generation and History

West Africa was unexpectedly rapped, parcelled and alienated with the catchphrase” acquire what you can but do not fight about it” Colonization had begun. The British Gold Coast was established in 1821. Before then the West African youth was happy, the greatest gift in life.The British detained privately owned lands at the coastal regions as well as the Danish Gold Coast in 1850 and the Dutch Gold Coast and Fort Elmina in 1871. By 1901, the Gold Coast was a British colony. The Gold Coast (Ghana) assisted the British in battles in World War 1 and 11 in Cameroon and in the East Africa campaign respectively as well as granting Ghana independence.

Economic and social development

In the twentieth century the British administered the Gold Coast. They maintain that there was significant progress in social, economic, and educational development. Communications improved because the Sekondi-Tarkwa railroad, which began in 1898, was extended to connect important enterprise centre’s of the south, and by 1937, there were 9,700 kilometres of roads. They initiated Telecommunication and postal services. There was an economic system in which, the British controlled the country’s trade and industry. There were no industries which was a social system in which the developing nations needed in order to survive. There was no answerability.

The Gold Coast (Ghana) was not mechanized and had to depend on the industrialized countries. Britain and the Western European countries who took Ghana`s riches were regarded as built-up countries together with the recipient of the Triangular Trade, America. Ghana was branded as Non-built-up country. It was a term applied, to include Africa, Asia, and Latin America which were formerly colonized. American collaborators identified themselves the First World and the Eastern nations were acknowledged as the Second or the Third World. The Third World countries that produced oil were Gabon, Algeria, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Nigeria. No one characterized them as third worlds except Nigeria. These countries gained economically because they could raise oil prices whenever it suited them. They were aware of the fact that the industrialized world was dependent on oil. The Oil producing countries were the (OPEC) countries.

Definite countries produced essential raw materials such as Jamaica, Australia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Chile, Peru, Zaire and Zambia who produced copper were not cost-effective as in oil, because, the industrial world depended on oil rather than copper. The countries that produced cocoa, coffee and other foods, such as Brazil, the Ivory Coast, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan had some economic gain whilst countries such as Ghana gained less from its export of cocoa. However, EEC assured reasonable income for countries with agricultural products but Ghana had not profited by it despite the British inheritance.

However, the general state and manner of survival in Ghana was not branded by adversity and distress. General public dealt effectively with their struggles and situations. They tried to make noteworthy commendable improvement and inspiring achievements. Agriculture, farming and crop growing were in improvement. Although they did not have advanced technical and scientific aid, because the British left the country to its own strategy there were cattle’s domestic animals, farm animals, hoes, cutlasses and machetes; their ability to function was tolerable. For the young generation it was clear that poverty was not merely a subject of riches but sustainable farming. Nobody was starving; they did not have access to communal services but they had shared meetings. They were not ill-treated; there was no aggression inside and outside their families. The young generation tried to surmount their problems through the guidance of their families, elders and chiefs and attuned to circumstances in response to their smallest requirements.

The young generations were physically powerful and their spirits could put up with the Europeans who entered their region in great numbers. There was no famine in the region and the citizens were, not deprived of their basic needs. The nation was not decomposed like poor figs.

It was basically in the light of the young generation who lived in it and knew what they needed to survive and, to develop a lifestyle familiar to them. There were overwhelming twists and turns in every human life irrespective of inheritance, something that was handed down, or remained from our ancestors in the course of human developments. The young generation in West Africa knew that it was all about ability and the moment of nature’s performance and timing. No human being could envisage or anticipate the activities and consequences of the works of natural world. Human beings are, expected to see what humans see. To expose something that is concealed or kept secret by nature can under no circumstances be seen.

The new generation in Ghana, more distant from what went before World Wars, colonialism and violence did, not take part in those severe miseries. Thus they did not realize the mental suffering, physical and psychosomatic pains in the lives of those men and women. In the minds of the Ghanaian young generations they feel, it is because of the dreadful insincerity of perceptiveness, dissimilarities and decisions, as a substitute of taking concern of our planet earth. The unset of Global warning was present but no one noticed because Europeans acquisition of countries.

The young generation identified the silhouetted of shortages that gloomed the people who lived in many provinces. Commanding rule was not the way out. At the back of the mind, row upon row the scars of colonialism was too deep. The young generation of West Africa today have learned how much colonialism had altered their everyday lives. It took bravery and submissiveness to live in the colonies. Their only salvation was for the older citizens to obey to the commands of the juvenile Europeans. Many citizens died out because slavery and fears were planted in their off springs. The new generation that followed them lingered behind in progress and development of former fundamental importance. The way colonialism had to handle Ghana was to acknowledge their common background, traditions, Diasporas, tribal ties, way of thinking, insights and understanding, perspective and source of revenue. Obviously, how could they have accomplished and bring about all these.

Cacao was introduced in 1878 an boozed the nation’s economy in the 1920s because when disease wiped out Brazil’s cocoa trees By the end of that decade, the nation could export more than half of the world’s cocoa supply. Export of timber and gold increased but in 1890s gold mining remained in the hands of Ashanti Goldfields Corporation because of better technology, and up-to-the-minute modes. The European mining companies and the colonial government accumulated much of the riches. Returns from export of natural resources financed domestic improvements in road and rail network and societal services. Educational structure, Achimota College which, was ahead of its time in West Africa resulted from these sells overseas revenues. The first University College of the Gold Coast was opened in 1948. Guggisberg was the governor. Technical school and teachers training college was established at Accra in 1909 and missionaries set up secondary schools.

Natural resources such as gold, metal ores, ivory, diamonds, timber, pepper, cocoa, bauxite, manganese, grain were shipped from the Gold Coast by the British. In addition the Akosombo Dam built in 1965 on the Volta River exports hydro electricity to the neighbouring countries. The British built a railway system and a complicated transport infrastructure in modern-day Ghana. We, the young generation never benefitted from these services except some tradition Hospitals and Schools as reward for the Ghanaian produce exported. It answers some of the questions why Africa with all its assets never developed and why there is poverty. However, by 1945, limitless demands for sovereignty by the Gold Coast population were beginning to arise, in the wake of the end of the Second World War and the beginnings of the decolonization progression across the world.

In modern Ghana,oilfield containing up to 3 billion barrels (480,000,000 m3) of light oil was discovered in 2007. Exploration is ongoing and the amount of oil continues to increase. Although, Unsuccessful economic policies of the earlier period led to inflationary arrears financing, downgrading of the Cedi, Ghana remains one of the more cost-effectively sound countries in Africa. In July, 2007, the Bank of Ghana introduced a currency re-denomination exercise, from the Cedi (c) to the new currency, the Ghana Cedi (GHc). The transfer rate is 1 Ghana Cedi for every 10,000 Cedis. In 2008 the currency was stable, Exchange rate of $USD=1.1

As the country developed, and succession of unfairness’ arose in the country, government power was transferred from the British to Ghanaians. It was through students who school worked in Britain that Ghanaian leaders gained the means and the desire for self governing.

EDUCATION IN ENGLAND: The University was, approved its first written announcement unfolding the privileges of the School in 1836. There were two institutions of the University, the University College of London and the King’s College. They were, founded in 1827 and 1829 respectively, the St. Bartholomew’s Medical School Hospital was part of Queen Mary and St. Thomas Medical School Hospital was part of the King’s College in London. London University operated as an examination body for the Colleges. After 1858, its degrees were available to the United Kingdom and the students studying by far-off or learning all over the whole wide world. It was an External bargain.

In the nineteenth century it was not only a body for examination but centralized Teaching University.It also kept an eye one educational excellence and course contends of the academies. In 1878, the University was first to declare women into its confines. From 1888 women began to be instructed at the university. The women who were accepted, and who went all the way through full courses in arts and science, received BA (Bachelor of Arts) and (Bachelor of Science) degrees, respectively. The university had more than 4000 students, which, was greater than Oxford and Cambridge Universities combined. Thus, it was the fifth largest university in the United Kingdom and in the world. Countless overseas students had occasion to be trained in politics and law, which benefited them to return to their individual countries with the knowledge they had receive to run their own. As to whether or not they, managed, reasonably and resourcefully were, based on each individual’s objectives in life. The University attracted worldwide attention in the British colonies. Britain made an effort to recommend hopefulness to people as well as deep human amnesty and deliberation of freedom from strife and continuing elimination of wishes aimed to hurt people through a new war. Britain thus, built up strong opinion for human right and fair management. Britain made Laws based on the ethics of fair dealing, sympathy for the viciously treated and the readiness and capability to put up with religious practices and racial broad-mindedness thus, England was a place of possible hope for all students all over the globe to obtain knowledge.

Schools and the colleges were designed for students who had to work in order to pay for their college tuition. Britain had put in order students from all over the world a wide range of learning opportunities to those over school age. There were courses conducted in the evenings only and courses conducted during daytime only or both day and evening and had been maintained ever since. There were many students who worked and paid for their own tuition when they attended those courses. Thus, educational opportunities were for everybody, part-time or fulltime.

Retrospectively, it was all in full swing when Portugal occupied Ceuta. Portuguese and Spanish navigators had explored the Americas and the African coasts, the Middle East, India and East Asia. Britain, France and the Netherlands, established their empires around the world and there were competitions amongst them. At the end of 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, colonization accelerated however, Portugal lost his colonies. England began to liberate its colonies, it was declaring Egypt and Iraq self-government in 1922 and 1932 respectively; they lost India, Ceylon, Burma, Malaysia and Singapore, and India in 1947, Ghana in 1954, Trans-Jordan and Palestine in 1946 and 1948 in that order. Italy departed from Libya in 1951. France lost Syria and Lebanon in 1946, Indochina (Vietnam) in 1954 as well as Laos and Cambodia. France also lost Tunisia and Morocco two years later. The Netherlands left Indonesia in 1949. Many sub Saharan regions and Madagascar including Ghana, Malawi and Zambia were preparing for liberation from colonial rule. Portugal intended to liberate Angola, Mozambique and Belgium was to liberate Zaire (Congo).Thus, people from different regions with different cultures, languages, religions, different up-bringing, different societal make- ups had to leave their fatherland into European societies.

The world’s poor and disadvantaged countries incurred immeasurable financial amount outstanding yet to be paid by weak countries to global monetary institutions, business-related, district expansion banks, and the governments of industrial countries. It is without a doubt one of the greatest hardship against the annihilation of global poverty. The burden of international debt prompted and prevented countless countries from developing and, to provide a minimum standard of living for the general public. This spending money is used to repay creditors and loans. Thus, education and healthcare which are of essential significance for developments are discontinued. Innumerable afflictions plague the world’s poor and disadvantaged. The financial debt owed by Underdeveloped countries to international financial institutions, commercial and regional development banks, as well as to the governments of developed countries, is undoubtedly one of the greatest of these hardships, and a tremendous force effective against the eradication of global poverty. Due to the burden of international debt, countless countries are prevented from developing, and from even providing a minimum standard of living for many of their citizens. This is not only because much-needed money is being sidetracked from domestic spending to repay creditors, but also because of the stringent conditions attached to certain loans. These conditions require countries to cut spending on social services such as education and healthcare- two necessary elements for development. Regardless, some still believe that the debt must be repaid. The underlying principle behind this position must first be addressed and outlined prior to discussing the reasoning for cancelling the financial debt of the world’s poorest countries. Innumerable afflictions plague the world’s poor and disadvantaged. The financial debt owed by underdeveloped countries to international financial institutions, business and regional development banks, as well as to the governments of developed countries, is undoubtedly one of the greatest of these hardships, and certainly a tremendous force working against the eradication of global poverty. Due to the burden of international debt, countless countries are prevented from developing, and from even providing a minimum standard of living for many of their citizens. This is not only because much-needed money is being diverted from domestic spending to pay off creditors, but also because of the severe conditions attached to certain loans. These conditions require countries to cut spending on social services such as education and healthcare- two necessary elements for development. Regardless, some still believe that the debt must be repaid. The rationale behind this position must first be addressed and outlined prior to discussing the reasoning for cancelling the financial debt of the world’s poorest countries.

Many countries felt quite euphoric at being free from colonialism, the new generation of free youth. Poverty had begun but citizens were unable to envisage it because it was sinister in coming. The euphemism of being self-governing blinded them. There was wealth to enjoy however; there were slums, malnutrition and disease to overcome. Population in Gold Coast was estimated to be 2.5million in the 1948s, Accra remained the capital and in 1957 the Gold Coast Colony became independent state of Ghana. The population in 1990 was approximately to be 953,500 in Accra.

In Ghana, the young generation migrated to Britain long before independence and from Belgium Congo to Belgium. Immigrants from Cape Verde, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and many other regions saturated Europe. People migrated from India to England in 1945 and 1950s, and from Pakistan, migrations took place from 1947. There were many gallant students, their courage most resolute, their devotion to country and family, unquestioning. The students had the imaginative notion that by sacrificing themselves in leaving their parents and homelands to a foreign country, they would create a world of sweetness and light for their parents and descendants to inhabit. There were host of reasons why countries mired in miseries to such an extent that people became deficient in every facet of livelihood and the young generation with clear vision, creative and innovative thinking needed a fresh beginning. To scores of people, Britain in 1950s was a cornucopia of education and opportunities. English was, spoken worldwide. United States of America had already gathered its share. They spoke English because they were English.

The young generation was thoughtful and was weighed down by anxieties both large and small because of colonialism. Most of them felt that they were persons whom, life had battered, and who had such an ordeal, that every blow and every snub made a wound and panic. Life had constantly snubbed their good intentions. At certain periods in their life’s they gave way and lost hope. They did not have any imagination to devise ways for a better life. They had to keep the promise they made to their families and to return to Africa as educated persons to help the development of the country. Some did return others not.

In retrospect, the British erected schools and outdated schools mainly in Accra, the capital, Kumasi, the second capitals whereas the majority of towns were left untouched. Today, the majority of British buildings are obsolete. In comparison with the industrialized world, it may seem today that the British left the colony in a deplorable state. They did not. West Africans failed to take care of what was left for them because of financial teething troubles.

My mother’s passing away robbed me of a deep and invaluable stabilizing presence. Growing up, I discovered, was a beneficial experience and provided me with a relief because of my ambitions and open expression of my strong feelings. My parents had learned from wars and miseries amongst humanity and the adverse effects of colonization. My family was not judgmental and their cultures were, interwoven with every human being which was really an eye opening and humbling experience to understanding of the world we lived in. In West Africa, the family devoted themselves to each other. No one was at the end of his or her tether; we, the children of four were never at the limit of our patience or endurance, and we were never at the end of our ropes. Thus, we could understand why the Europeans felt themselves different than the West Africans, especially if nobody made an attempt to understand the way others think, their behavioural patterns and culture.

Not everyone had the opportunity to attend school because of financial difficulties, but those whom the chance of attending school to study with caring locally trained teachers, loved to go to school. The teachers understood and embraced the unique ways in which children think and learn. The unique education provided the school children all the benefits of a nurturing environment. The children flourished and felt at home. The children had freedom to think creatively and to explore new ideas because; the teachers motivated them to learn conscientiously for a better West Africa after colonialism.

Because of World War II decolonization began, West Africans and other nations began to send youthful West African students to Europe for supplementary schooling. There was peace and harmony and the traumatized decolonized humankind began to see light after wars and turbulence. A new era arose; it was a doorway to prospect without dreads and discomforts. During that period, there were travelling activities from British colonies to the United Kingdom. Britain accepted African students. There were by now African slaves brought to the United Kingdom in 1760s. They were about 14.000 according to my grandparents but by 1772, their importation to Britain stopped and the number of slaves declined. In 1939, before the strong earthquake in Ghana, and in 1945 many Africans got employment as seamen and shore workers; others hid themselves in ships and sailed to Britain without papers, capital or personal belongings. African students studying in Britain increased and migrants from many British colonies followed after 1955, the number accelerated.

Ouagadougou: the country was subjected to uninterrupted conflict between 16th to early 19th century. The citizens were burnt out. However, with the arrival of the French, Ouagadougou, the country just above Ghana, was liberated by the French in the beginning of the 19th century. The chief Samori Ture was expelled by the French thus; it was part of French West Africa. However, they gained Independence from the French in 1960.The country was renamed Burkina Faso in 1984.

.Benin: In 1625 there were slave traders, the Fon, established Dahomey and conquered the neighbouring towns and villages of Dan and Allada and extended their imperialism as far as in the vicinity of Porto Novo. France established a trading post in 1857 at Grand-Popo. The French advanced to capture because of dispute against slavery in Dahomey In 1892 Dahomey was in the hands of the French, a protectorate and was sucked up into French West Africa in 1904. It was not until 1960 that they gained Independence from the French. The citizens renamed the country Benin.

Cape Verde: Portuguese took ownership of the colony in 1462. The Portuguese also had custody of Guinea. There was a quarrel of the emancipation of the settlement and the mainland Guinea. This consignment was intolerable for the Portuguese in 1975. They awarded the two countries independence with the view that the two countries could come together under a new state of Guinea-Bissau. Cape Verde came apart as sovereign republic in 1981.

Gambia.

In the 13th century the area was under the sway of Islam. It was not until the 18th and the 19th century that the British and the French were conscious of the condition. The British and the French became responsive of the circumstance but the British took control of the region, it became British dependency in 1888. Gambia achieved independence in 1965.

THE COLONIST

The young generation, more distant from former colonists are of the opinion that foreign settlers in Africa have in one way or the other cemented the financial system in West Africa. European colonists exported unprocessed supplies to be produced in Europe. Fabricated produce were brought back and put up for sale in Africa. This coordination made available mechanized nations in Europe with inexpensive unprocessed substances to increase their Cost-cutting assess. West African raw materials included cotton, crude oil, and minerals and cocoa just to mention a few and in return machineries, electrical paraphernalia, and textiles and fabrics to point out the minority. All previous Settlers were trade collaborators of their earlier colonies in West Africa. As one would expect, it would be impracticable to try to be at odds with the cultivators in industrialized countries. It would mean freezing the hand of one who nourishes you. Worldwide trade laws should favour industrialized states. They have higher outlay of manual Labour, employment and levies.